The Japanese Ko-So-A-Do
Today’s lesson is about the Ko-So-A-Do set of Japanese
grammar. This set will focus on the speaker and the listener.
Ko or こ is a set that refers to things/objects near the speaker.
So or そ is a set that refers to things/objects near the listener but far from the speaker.
A or あ refers to objects that are far from both speaker and listener.
Do or ど is the interrogative or the question marker in this set.
Let’s check the first Ko-So-A-Do set:
これ, それ, あれ, どれ
Sometimes it is called ‘Re-series’.
これ (Kore) refers to things that are close to the speaker,
and means ‘this’. While それ (Sore)
refers to things that are near to the listener but far from the speaker,
means ‘that’. あれ (Are)
refers to things far from both the speaker and listener, which
means ‘that over there’. どれ (Dore) is ‘which’ in English.
これ, それ, あれ and どれ always stand alone. It can be used as it is, or it can be followed by particles or be verb.
(Kore ha pen desu.)
This is a pen.
(Sore ha nan desu ka?)
What is that?
(Are ha watashi no pen desu.)
That is my pen.
(Dore desu ka?)
Which one is it?
この, その, あの, どの
Or the ‘No-series’.
The difference between this series and the Re-series is the No-series is always followed by a noun.
の-series + Noun
Though, the English equivalent of the No-series is the same as the Re-series. この (Kono) is ‘this’ in English. その (Sono) is ‘that’ while あの (Ano) is ‘that over there’. どの (Dono) is ‘which’ in English.
(Kono pen ha watashi no desu.)
This pen is mine.
(Sono pen ha anata no desu ka?)
Is that pen yours?
(Ano ie ha watashi no Kazoku no ie desu.)
That house is my family’s house.
(Dono kuruma ga anata no desu ka?)
Which car is yours?
ここ, そこ, あそこ, どこ
or the Ko-series. This series refers to places.
ここ (Koko) means ‘here’ or if you are the speaker, near
the speaker. そこ (Soko) means ‘there’ or ‘that’, near
the listener. あそこ (Asoko) means ‘over there’ or far from both the
speaker and the listener. どこ (Doko) means ‘where’.
(Koko ha watashi no ie desu.)
Here is my house.
(Soko ha watashi no kareshi no ie desu.)
That is my boyfriend’s house.
(Asoko ha kare no kaisha desu.)
Over there is his company.
(Doko ga kareshi no ie desu ka?)
Where is your boyfriend’s house?
こちら, そちら, あちら, どちら
This series is the polite way of ここ,
そこ, あそこ and どこ. If
you want to refer to a person in any direction, it is better to use this
series. こちら (Kochira) means ‘this’ (or ‘this place’). そちら (Sochira)
means ‘that’ (or ‘that place’). あそこ (Asoko) means ‘that over there’. どちら (Dochira) means ‘where’.
(Kochira he douzo.)
This way, please.
(Sochira ha kusuriya desu.)
That is the drugstore.
(Achira ha Toukyou Tawa- desu.)
That over there is the Tokyo Tower.
(Dochira ga suki no mise desu ka?)
Which store do you like better?
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