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Japanese Combined Characters

 



The 11 consonant characters are combined to ‘ya’, ‘yu’ and ‘yo’ to formed additional 33 characters. ‘ya’, ‘yu’ and ‘yo’ are written half the size of the normal characters. The combined characters’ principal rules for pronunciation is the first character indicates the initial sound and it combines with the sound of the second character.




There are special combined characters that are only used for Katakana and was formed to accommodate some foreign words or names. Aside from the 33 list of combined characters, the new special combined characters are, as of now, have 32 sound. 


                                33 Combined characters (Hiragana and Katakana)

きゃ (キャ)

kya

きゅ (キュ)

kyu

きょ (キョ)

kyo

ぎゃ (ギャ)

gya

ぎゅ (ギュ)

gyu

ぎょ (ギョ)

gyo

しゃ (シャ)

sha

しゅ (シュ)

shu

しょ (ショ)

sho

じゃ (ジャ)

ja

じゅ (ジュ)

ju

じょ (ジョ)

jo

ちゃ (チャ)

cha

ちゅ (チュ)

chu

ちょ (チョ)

cho

にゃ (ニャ)

nya

にゅ (ニュ)

nyu

にょ (ニョ)

Nyo

ひゃ (ヒャ)

hya

ひゅ (ニュ)

hyu

にょ (ニョ)

Hyo

びゃ (ビャ)

bya

びゅ (ビュ)

byu

びょ (ビョ)

Byo

ぴゃ (ピャ)

pya

ぴゅ (ピュ)

pyu

ぴょ (ピョ)

Pyo

みゃ (ミャ)

mya

みゅ (ミュ)

myu

みょ (ミョ)

Myo

りゃ (リャ)

rya

りゅ (リュ)

ryu

りょ (リョ)

Ryo

 

                Note: ぢゃ, ぢゅ, andぢょare usually written as じゃ, じゅ, andじょ.

 

                                       32 Additional combined characters for Katakana

ファ (fa)

フィ (fi)

フュ (fyu)

フェ (fe)

フォ (fo)

クァ (kwa)

クィ (kwi)

クェ (kwe)

クォ (kwo)

グァ (gwa)

ツァ (tsa)

ツィ (tsi)

ツェ (tse)

ツォ (tso)

チェ (che)

ティ (ti)

ディ (dhi) )

テュ (tyu)

デュ (dhu)

トゥ (tu)

ドゥ (du)

シェ (she)

ジェ (je)

 

 

イェ (ye)

ウィ (wi)

ウェ (we)

ウォ (wo)

 

ヴァ (va)

ウィ (vi)

ヴュ (vyu)

ヴェ (ve)

ヴォ (vo)

 

Examples:

 

           ぎゃ(gyaku) à Reverse

           しょ (basho) à Place

           もくひょ(mokuhyou) à Goal

           ぎゅにゅ(gyuunyuu) à Milk

           りゃくご (ryakugo) à Abbreviation

 

           ニュ(menyu-) à Menu

           インタビュ(intabyu-) à Interview

           リュ(baryu-) à Value

           ミュージカル (myu-jikaru) à Musical

           チョコレート (chokore-to) à Chocolate

 

           ヴェトナム (vetonamu) à Vietnam

           フォーク (fo-ku) à Fork

           フェテリア (cafeteria) à Cafeteria

           チェック (chekku) à Check or to check

           パーティ(pa-ti-) à Party


Next post will be the long vowels. 


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